St. Louis, MO
Posted - 03/03/2011 : 4:50 PM
In the last entry we saw that ordinary people in ordinary circumstances misjudge the actual ability of protective gear to reduce or prevent injury and take on more risk that uses up that safety margin. Motorcyclists are just as likely to fall prey to risk compensation as others. But how do motorcyclists-and non-riders-come to have an exaggerated belief that helmets, specifically, are more effective than they are?
Let's first take a look at what experts say about helmets. For the sake of conciseness, I'm going to sum up and put longer quotes and links in footnotes:
NHTSA claims that "Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes."[i]
The Michigan State Police claim that "Helmets decrease the severity of injury, the likelihood of death, and the overall cost of medical care.... Just like safety belts in cars, helmets can't provide total protection against head injury or death, but they do reduce the incidence of both.[ii]
The American College of Emergency Physicians says "Head injury is the leading cause of death in motorcycle crashes, and helmets provide the best protection from head injuries..."[iii]
Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety-long seen as opposing motorcycling in general-says, "Motorcycle helmets have been shown to save the lives of motorcyclists and prevent serious brain injuries."[iv]
The Insurance Institute of Highway Safety (IIHS) states the exact same thing in the exact same words as the Michigan State Police website so we'll use a different part of the quote: "In the event of a crash, unhelmeted motorcyclists are three times more likely than helmeted riders to suffer traumatic brain injuries..."[ v]
MSF has a .pdf flyer on helmets that states that "Helmet use is not a "cure-all" for motorcycle safety, but in a crash, a helmet can help protect your brain, your face, and your life.
"Combined with other protective gear, rider-education courses, proper licensing and public awareness, the use of helmets and protective gear is one way to reduce injury."[vi]
MSF's Basic RiderCourse handbook states, "Helmets work well in accomplishing their intended function to protect the head and brain from injury...helmet effectiveness has been confirmed by research, not just in the laboratory, but by decades of actual crash analysis as well. So, be safe and always wear a helmet while riding...Since head injuries account for the majority of motorcycle injuries, head protection is vital. The best helmet is no guarantee against injury, but statistics indicate that helmet use reduces the risk of brain injury by 67 percent (and gives the NHTSA 2004 "Traffic Safety Facts" report as the source of the statistic).[vii] However, the NHTSA 2004 Traffic Safety Report does not contain that statistic.
Media articles on motorcycle safety also repeat the same claims.
Media articles typically include whether a rider was wearing a helmet or not-and do so far more often than whether drivers were wearing seatbelts as in a short news item on the death of a rider from The Geneva County Reaper, "Motorcyclist killed in wreck":
"A 60-year-old motorcycle rider died on Easter Sunday in a single vehicle wreck on Walton County Road 181.
Ronnie Denza Hughes was headed west when the bike traveled across the eastbound lane and onto the shoulder, striking a tree, according to the Florida Highway Patrol. The bike rotated and came to rest facing south.
The accident took place around 7 p.m. Hughes was not wearing a helmet."
WEAU 13 NEWS in Eau Claire, WI published an article on April 13 of this year, "Motorcycle riders and law enforcement warn about motorcycle safety." It said, in part, "...We highly recommend people wear helmets they're not required by law, unless your under 18 or have an instructional permit, but a helmet's gonna definitely save you from serious injury in case you are involved in a crash," Sgt. Jerry Voight with the Wisconsin State Patrol says."[viii]
The Columbus Dispatch, published an article on April 3, "Caution urged in motorcycle season: Deaths a grim reminder for riders, motorists".
The latter part of the article focuses on the human interest element. After first detailing how one unhelmeted rider died in a crash it goes on to tell about another fatality: "Computer developer Joseph Matello, 40, of Riverstone Drive in Columbus, died after a crash about 11a.m. Thursday on the Far West Side. Police said he crossed the center line on Feder Road and struck a car head-on.
"His wife, Stephani, said Matello was a strong believer in safety, and a helmet saved his life a few years ago when a car driver didn't see him and struck him."[ix]
Iow, even though the crash was-for whatever reason-his fault and though a helmet was worn and did not save his life, the article still stresses how important wearing a helmet is-and that it had saved his life years before.
Reasonable to believe helmets are effective
The above is just a fraction of all the repeated direct and implied claims by those who present themselves as experts. The story told by different groups circle around on themselves by citing each other-and most often NHTSA.
The very official status of the sources gives credibility to their claims. That story then is willingly propagated through the media that repeats those claims and adds testimonials from both dealers and riders-or in the last case, the dead rider's spouse.
It's highly likely that a reasonable person, after reading even a portion of the above would believe that helmets were highly effective in preventing death and reducing injuries. In fact, it would be unreasonable to disbelieve such repeated accounts.
As we've seen, ordinary people-which fulfills the legal definition of a reasonable person-take more risks in ordinary ways simply because they believe they are safer because they are wearing some kind of protective gear.
Iow, it's reasonable that a reasonable person would act upon such repeated safety claims and to take on risks he or she wouldn't if they weren't wearing a helmet. For example-the risk of riding a motorcycle at all.
Iow, we believe that helmets are effective because we've been told over and over by credible sources that they are. And we don't just act upon that belief, we stake our lives on it.
But the thing is-we don't have to take on anything more than the most ordinary risks of riding to out-ride the protection a helmet can give in the most ordinary circumstances.
Given the strong chorus of approval and recommendations from safety and transportation interests and experts, it's exceedingly interesting and illuminating and especially surprising-what helmet manufacturers say about their products. Or rather, what they don't say.
[i] Helmet Use Laws. NHTSA. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/inj...lehelmet.pdf
[ii] "They're designed to cushion and protect riders' heads from the impact of a crash.... Motorcycle crash statistics show that helmets are about 37 percent effective in preventing crash fatalities. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates an unhelmeted rider is 40 percent more likely to suffer a fatal head injury and 15 percent more likely to incur a nonfatal head injury than a helmeted motorcyclist." http://www.michigan.gov/msp/0,1607,...3677,00.html
[iii] "Helmets are estimated to be 37 percent effective in preventing fatal injuries to motorcycle riders. (NHTSA)... Everyone is only one step away from a medical emergency....Helmet use is the single most important factor in people surviving in motorcycle crashes. They reduce the risk of head, brain and facial injury among motorcyclists of all ages and crash severities. Unhelmeted motorists are 40 percent more likely to die from a head injury, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)." http://www.acep.org/pressroom.aspx?id=26118
[ v] "Helmets decrease the severity of head injuries, the likelihood of death, and the overall cost of medical care. They are designed to cushion and protect riders' heads from the impact of a crash. Just like safety belts in cars, helmets cannot provide total protection against head injury or death, but they do reduce the incidence of both. NHTSA estimates that motorcycle helmets reduce the likelihood of crash fatality by 37 percent....Helmets are highly effective in preventing brain injuries, which often require extensive treatment and may result in lifelong disability." http://www.iihs.org/research/qanda/helmet_use.html This quote appears verbatim on several other websites.
[vi] "Second, a good helmet makes riding a motorcycle more fun, due to the comfort factor: another truth.
"Third, wearing a helmet shows that motorcyclists are responsible people; we take ourselves and motorcycling seriously. Wearing a helmet, no matter what the law says, is a projection of your attitude toward riding. And that attitude is plain to see by other riders and non-riders alike." http://www.msf-usa.org/downloads/helmet_CSI.pdf
[viii] "State troopers say just wearing a helmet and the proper gear could help save your life People who drive motorcycles say the feel of the wind on your face is a thrilling experience, Wisconsin doesn't require helmets, but those who sell motorcycles and those who enforce the law, say safety needs to be of utmost importance. http://www.weau.com/news/headlines/...html?ref=479
[ix] "She said she has a message for other motorcyclists: "For riders, wear as much protective gear as possible.
"For cars, watch for them. They're everywhere, and it only takes a second to take somebody's life." http://www.dispatch.com/live/conten...html?sid=101